4. Of the following, the local anesthetic with the LEAST neuro-toxic potential is?
Lidocaine, tetracaine, and procaine have all been reported to cause cauda equina syndrome after spinal anesthesia. Bupivacaine is unique in not having done so.
1. Nicholson M, Eversole U: Neurological complications of spinal anesthesia. JAMA 1946; 132:679-685 (tetracaine)
2. Rigler ML, Drasner K, Krejcie TC, Yelich SJ, Scholnick FT, DeFontes J, Bohner D: Cauda equina syndrome after continuous spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1991; 72:275-81 (lidocaine and tetracaine)
3. Ferguson F, Watkins K: Paralysis of the bladder and associated neurological sequelae of spinal anesthesia (cauda equina syndrome). Br J Surg 1937; 25:735-752 (procaine
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