Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics
1. The factor that is LEAST likely to affect the onset of a local anesthetics is:
- Tissue diffusion
- Protein binding
- Addition of sodium bicarbonate
2. Adding sodium bicarbonate to increase the pH of a local anesthetic produces a "carbonated local anesthetic."
3. Which of the following local anesthetics is most potent, least stabile, and most allergenic?
Toxicity of Local Anesthetics
4. Of the following, the local anesthetic with the LEAST neuro-toxic potential is:
5. The reports of so-called transient radicular irritation (now referred to as "transient neurologic syndrome" following spinal anesthesia PROVES that certain local anesthetics are neuro-toxic.
6. During spinal anesthesia, all of the following SIGNIFICANTLY influence the distribution of local anesthetic in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) EXCEPT:
- CSF circulation
- Configuration of the spinal column
7. Cauda epuina syndrome following continuous spinal anesthesia occurs ONLY when spinal micro-catheters are used.
8. The drug MOST LIKELY to be associated with spinal/epidural hematoma with central neuraxis blockade (spinal, epidural anesthesia), with or without a catheter is:
- Postoperative low molecular weight heparin
- Postoperative coumadin
- Subcutaneous un-fractionated heparin
9. During epidural anesthesia, which of the following contains the HIGHEST concentration of local anesthetic:
- Dorsal root ganglia
- Cerebrospinal fluid
- Ventral horn
- Nerve roots
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